Heat Pump Working Principle

Heat pumps extract around 70% of energy from the ambient environment and consume only about 30% of energy to convert low-potential heat into directly usable heat. In simple words: Heat pumps consume only 30% of the electric power to produce 100% of thermal energy.

The ambient environment (air, water or ground) holds a large amount of heat. Due to its low temperature levels, such heat cannot be used directly for space heating and hot water preparation. If we want to take advantage of the heat from the ambient environment, we need to convert it to a higher temperature. This is what the heat pump can do by using a refrigerant, which is a substance with low boiling point as the most distinctive feature. This point must lie lower than the ambient temperature, from which the heat is extracted.

How a heat pump works

Refrigerant is being evaporated in contact with the ambient environment due to low temperatures. When it gets to gaseous state, it is compressed by the compressor, and thus its temperature will rise to a level usable for the space heating or hot water preparation. The refrigerant, after being heated up, is conveyed to a condenser, in which it gives up heat to the heating fluid. This will reduce its temperature and the refrigerant converts back into liquid state. It flows to the compressor and the cycle will be repeated.

How a heat pump works

More information: Wikipedia.